In 1802 Heilbronn lost its status as an imperial city - Heilbronn became part of Württemberg and soon benefited from new economic opportunities.
The financially sound trading companies used the hydropower generated by the water mills on the banks of the Neckar River for their first industrial operations. Paper mills and chemical plants were established.
The new factories attracted workers from the villages around Heilbronn which resulted in new challenges in terms of urban planning and social provision. Steam boats on the Neckar River ushered in a new era of transportation.