From the very outset of the Thirty Years’ War, Heilbronn was besieged and occupied time and again. Despite its new bastions, the city walls were no longer strong enough to offer protection.
During the war, people living in the villages around Heilbronn sought refuge in the city from time to time. As a consequence, the city suffered from severe overcrowding. Epidemics raged, fields remained uncultivated and hunger prevailed.
In the 18th century, the city was again adversely affected by troops marching through and looking for a place to stay. Nevertheless, the city’s economy prospered. Long-distance trading flourished and Heilbronn’s large trading companies acquired considerable wealth.