By the beginning of the High Middle Ages, Heilbronn had grown to become a city. By around 1100, Heilbronn was granted the right to hold market days and mint coins and it had its own river port. Jews already lived in Heilbronn - an early indication of the city’s urban character.
Some 300 years after it was first mentioned in 741, Heilbronn was no longer under the direct rule of the king. Around 1100 the noble family of the Counts of Calw gave substantial rights pertaining to the city to Hirsau Monastery located in the Black Forest. The bishop of Würzburg also owned land and property in Heilbronn and exercised certain rights there.